The tricuspid valve separates the right ventricle (lower heart chamber) from the right atrium (upper heart chamber.
The two common types of tricuspid valve diseases are tricuspid insufficiency/tricuspid regurgitation and tricuspid stenosis.
Tricuspid insufficiency/tricuspid regurgitation is a disorder involving backward flow of blood across the tricuspid valve, which separates the right ventricle (lower heart chamber) from the right atrium (upper heart chamber).
This occurs during contraction of the right ventricle and is caused by damage to the tricuspid heart valve or enlargement of the right ventricle.
The most common cause of tricuspid regurgitation is not damage to the valve itself, but enlargement of the right ventricle, which may be a complication of any disorder that causes failure of the right ventricle.
Rheumatic fever , diet medications such as "Phen-fen" (phentermine and fenfluramine) or dexfenfluramine, and a congenital heart disease (Ebstein anomaly) are also risk factors for tricuspid regurgitation. Rarely, tricuspid regurgitation is caused by an unusual tumor called carcinoid which secretes a hormone which damages the valve. Other infrequent causes of tricuspid regurgitation include endocarditis, rheumatoid arthritis, radiation therapy, Marfan syndrome, and injury.
In the absence of high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), tricuspid regurgitation is usually asymptomatic. If pulmonary hypertension and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation coexist, symptoms may include:
Steps to prevent or to reduce the risk of tricuspid regurgitation include: